Propionate life

Testosterone esters were synthesized for the first time in 1936, and were found to have greatly improved potency relative to testosterone. [11] Among the esters synthesized, testosterone propionate was the most potent, and for this reason, was selected for further development, subsequently being marketed. [11] Testosterone propionate was introduced in 1937 by Schering AG in Germany under the brand name Testoviron. [8] It was the first ester of testosterone to be introduced, [12] and was the major form of testosterone used medically before 1960. [8] In the 1950s, longer-acting testosterone esters like testosterone enanthate and testosterone cypionate were introduced and superseded testosterone propionate. [12] Although rarely used nowadays due to its short duration, [13] testosterone propionate remains medically available. [8]

In propionic acidemia , a rare inherited genetic disorder, propionate acts as a metabolic toxin in liver cells by accumulating in mitochondria as propionyl-CoA and its derivative, methylcitrate, two tricarboxylic acid cycle inhibitors. Propanoate is metabolized oxidatively by glia , which suggests astrocytic vulnerability in propionic acidemia when intramitochondrial propionyl-CoA may accumulate. Propionic acidemia may alter both neuronal and glial gene expression by affecting histone acetylation. [19] [20] When propionic acid is infused directly into rodents' brains, it produces reversible behavior (., hyperactivity , dystonia , social impairment, perseveration ) and brain changes (., innate neuroinflammation, glutathione depletion) that may be used as a means to model autism in rats. [19]

Propionate life

propionate life

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